Unknown Eye Diseases

Top Unknown and Rare Eye Diseases

Eye conditions and diseases can occur in patients both young and old, for numerous reasons. While some are known, many lesser-known conditions can result from disease, genetics, tumors, or trauma. Among these, lagophthalmos, ptosis, anopthalmia and other conditions can often result from an uncommon eye condition.


Patients affected with lagophthalmos are unable to fully close their eyelids, and may experience dry and irritated eyes. Causes can include:

Bell’s Palsy is a condition that causes paralysis of one side of the face. Lagophthalmos develops on the affected side, and sufferers often develop severe dry eye, which can lead to permanent vision loss if not corrected.

Eye Trauma and Tumors may cause damage to the facial nerve responsible for proper eyelid closure and the blink reflex. Skull fractures and eyelid surgical procedures can also cause damage to this nerve. Rare tumors, such as acoustic neuromas, can also lead to lagophthalmos.

Infectious Diseases such as lyme disease, chickenpox, mumps, polio, leprosy, diphtheria, and botulism can all cause lagophthalmos in patients.


Ptosis occurs as a drooping of the upper or lower eyelid. This condition can cause eye fatigue, double vision, and trouble blinking. It often develops as a result of aging, but may also be credited to the following causes:

Congenital Defects can present themselves at birth and may be caused by abnormalities in a person’s inherent anatomy.

Trauma and Neurological Disease can affect the muscles responsible for lifting the eyelid.

Eye Surgery involving the nerves and muscles of the eye rarely cause ptosis.

Anopthalmia and Micropthalmia

Anopthalmia and Micropthalmia are very rare conditions that are both caused by congenital defects. They can also be the result of enucleation or evisceration after a severe traumatic event. Micropthalmia is the underdevelopment of the eye, whereas anopthalmia is the complete lack of eye development. Both of these present an issue when the cause is congenital, and can be treated with orbital eye surgery.


Glaucoma is an eye condition that occurs as a result of damaged optic nerves. The optic nerve is responsible for the transference of visual information to the brain, which eventually makes it possible for you to see. This damage occurs as a result of high pressure inside the eye, which could lead to partial or complete blindness.

The pressure originates from the aqueous humor, the fluid of the eye that is continuously formed. It fills the front of the eye and goes out through the cornea and iris. If the passages are blocked, then natural pressure of the eye shoots up. Eventually, this pressure damages the optic nerves, causing this condition.

Subconjunctival Hemorrhage

Subconjunctival hemorrhage occurs when blood gathers under the transparent tissues of the eye. Many tiny vessels, in millions, lay as a carpet on the surface of the conjunctiva and the space between the sclera. When one of these vessels burst, it causes the flow of blood. This condition does not affect the vision, but is rare in nature.


Nevi develops with a mole on the eye. It can occur anywhere on the eye – the front, around the iris, on the colored part of the eye, and beneath the retina in the back of the eye. This condition is rare and typically harmless, but some can develop into cancers. Medical check-up is essential if diagnosed.

Additional Unknown Eye Diseases

Bietti’s Crystalline Dystrophy is an inherited disease that causes crystals to develop in the cornea, as well as yellow deposits on the retina, and may cause progressive vision loss. Symptoms may include visual field constriction and night blindness, and at this time, there is no solution for this rare disease.

Retinoblastoma is a type of cancer that forms in the retina. It usually occurs in children younger than 5 years, and it is sometimes hereditary. Although it is life threatening, it can be treated with surgery if diagnosed early enough.

Retinitis Pigmentosa is a progressive degeneration of the retina. Common symptoms include night blindness and a loss of peripheral vision. At this time, there is no treatment, but the use of Vitamin A may slow down the progression of this condition.

Coloboma is a condition that is caused by a lack of development of one or more structure of the eye. The missing structure can be part of the eyelid, lens, macula, optic nerve, or uvea. No treatment currently exists for this condition, but using corrective lenses and treating complications can reduce the negative effects of this condition.

If you’re concerned you may be suffering from a possible eye health problem or you just want to have a checkup, contact Dr. Ghosheh at Advanced Eye Medical.